You are citing in Chicago Manual of Style 16th. If you're looking for the 17th Edition, click here

Your Bibliography

Your Ultimate Guide to Chicago Style Citations

Chicago style is a system used by researchers to structure their written work and references. Other popular systems include MLA format and APA, and Chicago is simply another style to add to the bunch. MLA is often used for language and literature studies, APA format is widely used by science writers, and Chicago is often the preferred choice for those working in history and other social sciences. Many other disciplines use Chicago as well.

If your teacher has requested Chicago citations in Turabian, don’t worry, you’ve come to the right place. Chicago is a system used by professional researchers and scholars. Kate Turabian is an educator who created a spin-off style, specifically for students and others who are using the style for assignments, not to get professionally published. Turabian’s structure for references are the same as Chicago. The only difference between between the two is that Turabian’s manual focuses more on the design and structure of a research paper, rather than a formally published piece.

If you’re a student and you’re trying to figure out how to create a Chicago style title page or Chicago style cover page, click here and check out the student resources.

One style, Two Varieties

Researchers have two options to choose from when they’re ready to reference work in this style. They can either choose to format their references using the “Notes and Bibliography” system or the “Author-Date” system.

Notes and Bibliography

This system uses footnotes, endnotes, and bibliographies. It’s most often used by those working in history, literature, and art.

Author-Date

This system uses in-text citations and bibliographies to structure Chicago citations. It’s most often used by those working in social sciences and sciences.

This page focuses on Notes and Bibliography, rather than Author-Date.

Footnotes and Endnotes

Instead of Chicago in-text citations, Notes and Bibliography uses footnotes or endnotes. A bibliography is also found at the very end of the paper.

A footnote is a reference found at the footer of the page. As readers read through a paper, they come across superscript numbers like this¹

At the footer of the page, readers locate the superscript number and view the reference information.

  1. The reference information is found at the bottom of the page.

Endnotes are found at the end of the chapter. They’re similar to footnotes in that they use superscript numbers like this¹. Writers may choose to use footnotes OR endnotes in their paper.

Whether you choose to include footnotes at the footer of each page, or endnotes, at the end of the chapter, a bibliography is always included at the end of the paper.

The remainder of this guide explains how to structure references both in the notes and bibliographies.

In need of a Chicago citation machine to take the guesswork out of piecing together your Chicago style bibliographies? Look no further! BibMe.org has the tools you need to instantly develop your references. Take a trip to our homepage and create your references in just a few clicks!

How to Reference a Website Using the Chicago Manual of Style

The most basic entry for a website consists of the author name(s), page title, website title, web address, and date published or accessed.

Notes:

  1. First Name Last Name of Author, “Title of Page,” Title of Website, Month Day, date published or accessed, web address.

Bibliography:

Last Name, First Name of Author. “Page Title.” Website Title. Month Day, Date published or accessed. Web address.

Example Notes and Bibliography:

  1. John Smith, “Obama Inaugurated as President,” CNN, accessed February 1, 2009, http://www.cnn.com/POLITICS/01/21/obamainaugurated/index.html. Smith, John. “Obama Inaugurated as President.” CNN. Accessed February 1, 2009. http://www.cnn.com/POLITICS/01/21/obamainaugurated/index.html.

In the bibliography, the first author’s name should be reversed, with a comma placed after the last name and a period after the first name (or any middle name). Titles and affiliations associated with the author should be omitted. A suffix, such as a roman numeral or Jr./Sr., should appear after the author’s given name, preceded by a comma.

For a page with two or more authors, list them in the order as they appear on the website. Only the first author’s name should be reversed, while the others are written in normal order. Separate author names by a comma.

Smith, John, and Jane Doe. “Obama Inaugurated as President.” CNN. Accessed February 1, 2009. http://www.cnn.com/POLITICS/01/21/obama_inaugurated/index.html.

If no author is available, begin the citation with the website owner.

CNN. “Obama Inaugurated as President.” Accessed February 1, 2009. http://www.cnn.com/POLITICS/01/21/obama_inaugurated/index.html.

In Chicago style formatting, the full page title, which is followed by a period, should be placed within quotation marks. Place the period within the quotation marks.

Next, place the published date, or if one is not included, include the accessed date with “Accessed” written out prior to including the date. Include the web address of the page at the end. Conclude the citation with a period.

For websites without formal titles, use descriptive phrases in your citation in place of website titles.

Need more styles? We have thousands available! From popular to obscure ones, we bet we have what you’re looking for!

How to Reference a Journal Article Using the Chicago Manual of Style

The most basic entry for a journal article consists of the author name(s), article title, journal name, volume number, date published, and page numbers.

Notes:

  1. First Name Last Name of Author, “Article Title,” Journal Name Volume Number, no. of issue (Date published): Page-Range, DOI address.

Bibliography:

Last Name, First Name. “Article Title.” Journal Name Volume Number, no. of issue (Date Published): Page-Range. DOI address.

Examples:

  1. John Smith, “Studies in Pop Rocks and Coke,” Weird Science 12, no. 3 (Spring 2009): 78-93, https://doi.org/10.1086/5422323.

Smith, John. “Studies in Pop Rocks and Coke.” Weird Science 12, no. 3 (Spring 2009): 78-93. https://doi.org/10.1086/5422323.

In the Chicago style bibliography, the first author’s name should be reversed (last name, then first name), with a comma placed after the last name and a period after the first name (or any middle name). The name should not be abbreviated and should be written exactly as it appears in the journal. Titles and affiliations associated with the author should be omitted. A suffix, such as a roman numeral or Jr./Sr. should appear after the author’s given name, preceded by a comma.

For an article written by two or more authors, list them in order as they appear in the journal. Only the first author’s name should be reversed, while the others are written in normal order. Separate author names with a comma.

Smith, John, and Jane Doe. “Studies in Pop Rocks and Coke.” Weird Science 12, no. 3 (Spring 2009): 78-93. https://doi.org/10.1086/5422323.

The full article title, which is followed by a period, should be placed within quotation marks. Place the period within the quotation marks. Although Chicago citation style traditionally uses the headline style of capitalizing the first letter of each word in the title, sentence style is also acceptable. Be consistent in your bibliography in using either style.

The article title is followed by the name of the journal, which is italicized. Omit any introductory articles (e.g., A, An, The) from the journal name. Journal names are usually given in full. You can abbreviate a journal name if you wish, except if it consists of one word. It is common to abbreviate journal names from scientific works (e.g., Comp Tech Evol).

Include the volume number after the journal name. If an issue number is available, include it after the volume number and before the year published. Precede the issue number with a comma and the text “no.”

Put the year of publication in parentheses. Afterwards, include a colon, the page numbers the article appears on, and a period. You may include the month or season in parentheses before the year, although it is not necessary if you include an issue number.

If the article was published online, include the web address of the article. Conclude the citation with a period.

Remember, BibMe has a Chicago citation generator, which helps develop your Chicago style citations for you!

How to Reference a Book Using the Chicago Manual of Style

The most basic entry for a book consists of the author’s name, the title of the book, publisher city, publisher name, the year of publication, and the page range.

Notes:

  1. First Name Last Name of Author, Title of Book (Publisher City: Publisher Name, Year of Publication), page range.

Bibliography:

Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. Publisher City: Publisher Name, Year Published.

Examples:

  1. Dan Brown, The DaVinci Code (New York: Scholastic, 2004), 17-19.

Brown, Dan. The DaVinci Code. New York: Scholastic, 2004.

In the bibliography, the first author’s name should be reversed, with a comma placed after the last name and a period after the first name (or any middle name/initial). The name should generally be written as it appears on the title page, although certain adjustments may need to be made. Titles and affiliations associated with the author should be omitted. A suffix, such as a roman numeral or Jr./Sr. should appear after the author’s given name, preceded by a comma.

If you’re wondering how to cite Chicago style for a book written by two or more authors, list them in the order as they appear on the title page. Only the first author’s name should be reversed, while the others are written in normal order. Separate author names by a comma.

Smith, John, Jane Doe, and Bob Anderson. The Sample Book. Pittsburgh: BibMe, 2008.

The full title of the book, including any subtitles, should be stated and italicized. If the book has a subtitle, the main title should be followed by a colon (unless the main title ends with a question mark, exclamation point, or dash). The complete title should be followed by a period.

The publication information can generally be found on the title page of the book. If it is not available there, it may also be found on the copyright page. List the publication city, followed by a colon and the publisher name.

The publisher name may be given in full or it can be abbreviated. In all cases, introductory articles (e.g., The, A, An) and some business titles (e.g., Inc., Ltd., S.A.) are omitted. Other business titles (e.g., Co., & Co., Publishing Co.) are often omitted, but can be retained.

“Books” is usually retained. “Press” may be omitted or retained – if it is used with a university name, it must be retained. The word “University” can be abbreviated as “Univ.” The publisher is followed by a comma, and then the year of publication. End the Chicago citation with a period.

Full publisher name: The Good Book Company Name in citation: Good Book

Full name: Lowell Libson, Ltd. Name in citation: Lowell Libson

Full name: University of Hawai'i Press
Name in citation: Univ. of Hawai'i Press

If you are citing a specific chapter from the book, include the following information before the book title: the chapter name and a period in quotations. Also include either the inclusive page numbers of the chapter (along with a period after the year of publication) or the chapter number (along with the text “Chap.”, preceding the “In” text before the book title).

Smith, John. “The First Chapter.” In The Sample Book BibMe, 2008.

In the notes:

  1. John Smith. “The First Chapter,” in The Sample Book (Pittsburgh: BibMe, 2008) 47-61.

When a book has no edition number/name present, it is generally a first edition. If you have to cite a later edition of a book, you should indicate the newer edition in your Chicago citation.

If the book is a revised edition or an edition that includes substantial new content, include the number, name, or year of the edition and the abbreviation “ed.” in parentheses between the book title and the period that follows it.

“Revised edition” should be abbreviated as “Rev. ed.” and “Abridged edition” should be abbreviated as “Abr. ed.” “Second edition, revised and enlarged” can be abbreviated simply as “2nd ed.” The edition can usually be found on the title page, as well as on the copyright page, along with the edition’s date.

Smith, John. The Sample Book. 2nd ed. Pittsburgh: BibMe, 2008.

Smith, John. The Sample Book. Rev. ed. Pittsburgh: BibMe, 2008.

If the book is a reprint edition and is a newly republished version of an older book, include the original year of publication and a period after the period that follows the book title. Place the word “Reprint” and a comma before the publication city. The publication year at the end of the citation should be the year of the book’s reprinting.

Smith, John. The Sample Book. 1920. Reprint, Pittsburgh: BibMe, 2008.

Whether you’re creating a reference for a print book, e-book, or book found on a database, our Chicago citation maker assembles your book references for you! If you’ve come this far, still confused, and find yourself typing “in-text citations Chicago” into Google, remember this version uses footnotes and endnotes, not parenthetical references in the text!

How to Reference a Newspaper Using the Chicago Manual of Style

The most basic entry for a newspaper consists of the author name(s), article title, newspaper name, publication date, and web address or name of database.

Notes:

  1. First Name Last Name of Author, “Article Title,” Newspaper Name, Publication Date, web address or name of database.

Bibliography:

Last Name, First Name. “Article Title.” Newspaper Name, Publication Date. Web address or name of database.

Examples:

  1. John Smith, “Steelers Win Super Bowl XLIII,” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, February 2, 2009, https://post-gazette.com/local/city/feb22009steelerswin.

Smith, John. “Steelers Win Super Bowl XLIII.” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, February 2, 2009. https://post-gazette.com/local/city/feb22009steelerswin.

In the bibliography of your Chicago style paper, the first author’s name should be reversed, with a comma placed after the last name and a period after the first name (or any middle name). The name should not be abbreviated and should be written exactly as it appears in the newspaper. Titles and affiliations associated with the author should be omitted. A suffix, such as a roman numeral or Jr./Sr. should appear after the author’s given name, preceded by a comma.

For an article written by two or more authors, list them in order as they appear in the newspaper. Only the first author’s name should be reversed, while the others are written in normal order. In Chicago citation style, separate author names by a comma.

Smith, John, and Jane Doe. “Steelers Win Super Bowl XLIII.” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, February 2, 2009. https://post-gazette.com/local/city/feb22009steelerswin.

The full article title, which is followed by a period, should be placed within quotation marks. Place the period within the quotation marks. Although this style traditionally uses the headline style of capitalizing the first letter of each word in the title, sentence style is also acceptable. Be consistent in your bibliography in using either style.

The article title is followed by the name of the newspaper, which is italicized and followed by a comma. The Chicago Manual of Style states to omit any introductory articles (e.g. A, An, The) from the newspaper name. If the publication city is not in the newspaper name, add it, in parentheses (and italics, if it’s a North American newspaper), to the end of the newspaper name. If the publication city shares its name with other cities or the location of the publication city is unclear, include the state/province name, in parentheses and italics, after the city within the newspaper name.

Smith, John. “Steelers win Super Bowl XLIII.” Star Ledger (Newark), February 2, 2009.

Smith, John. “Steelers win Super Bowl XLIII.” Ottawa (IL) Daily Times, February 2, 2009.

Smith, John. “Steelers win Super Bowl XLIII.” Guardian (Manchester), February 2, 2009.

Complete the citation by giving the complete publication date of the newspaper in the month-day-year format, followed by the web address or database name and a period.

Smith, John. “Steelers win Super Bowl XLIII.” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, February 2, 2009. LexisNexis Academic.

If you’re searching for a Chicago style citation maker to do the work for you, look no further! Head to our homepage and create your newspaper references in Chicago style format!

How to Reference a Magazine Using the Chicago Manual of Style

When citing a magazine, use the same structure to cite a newspaper.

The most basic entry for a magazine consists of the author’s name, the title of the book, publisher city, publisher name, the year of publication, and the web address or database name.

Notes:

  1. First Name Last Name of Author, “Article Title,” Magazine Title, Month Date, Year of Publication, web address OR database name.

Bibliography:

Last Name, First Name of Author. “Article title.” Magazine Title, Month Date, Year of publication. Web address OR Database name.

Examples:

  1. Dan Chan, “The Art of Pandas,” Panda Magazine, November 10, 1985, www.pandamagazine.com.

Chan, Dan. “The Art of Pandas.” Panda Magazine, November 10, 1985. www.pandamagazine.com.

In the bibliography, the first author’s name should be reversed, with a comma placed after the last name and a period after the first name (or any middle name/initial). The name should generally be written as it appears on the article, although certain adjustments may need to be made. Titles and affiliations associated with the author should be omitted. A suffix, such as a roman numeral or Jr./Sr., should appear after the author’s given name, preceded by a comma.

The full article title, which is followed by a period, should be placed within quotation marks. Place the period within the quotation marks. Although Chicago style citations traditionally use the headline style of capitalizing the first letter of each word in the title, sentence style is also acceptable. Be consistent in your bibliography in using either style. The article title is followed by the name of the magazine, which is italicized. Place a comma after the magazine name.

The complete date of the magazine article should be written in the “month day, year” format. The publication date may consist of a complete date (January 1, 2009), a period that spans multiple months (March – April 2009), or simply a month and year (February 2009). Give whatever publication date information is available.

End the citation with a period after the publication date if you’re citing a print magazine. If you’re citing an online magazine, follow the period after the date with the full web address or the name of the database.

Chan, Dan. “The Art of Pandas.” Panda Magazine, November 10, 1985. World Animal Database.

Need more information? Trying to learn the ins and outs and feeling the need to type “bibliography Chicago style” into Google? Check out this read!

How to Reference a Film Using the Chicago Manual of Style

The most basic entry for a film consists of the title, medium, director name(s), distributor, distributor city, and year of release.

Notes:

  1. Film Title, directed by First Name Last Name (Distributor City, St: Distributor, Year of Release), Medium.

Remember, instead of a Chicago style in-text citation, this Chicago format style uses footnotes and endnotes!

Bibliography:

Last Name, First. Film Title. Medium. Directed by First Name Last Name. Distributor City: Distributor, Year of Release.

Examples:

  1. BibMe: The Movie, directed by Jane Doe (Los Angeles: Columbia, 2001), DVD.

Doe, Jane, dir. BibMe: The Movie. Los Angeles: Columbia, 2001. DVD.

In the bibliography, begin the citation by including any personnel responsible for the content being cited, including composers, writers, or performers. The first person’s name should be reversed, with a comma placed after the last name and a period after the first name (or any middle name). Titles and affiliations associated with the author should be omitted. A suffix, such as a roman numeral or Jr./Sr. should appear after the author’s given name, preceded by a comma.

For a film with two or more personnel, list them in order as they are credited in the film. In a Chicago style citation, only the first person’s name should be reversed, while the others are written in normal order. Separate names by a comma.

Doe, Jane, and Joe Anderson, dirs. BibMe: The Movie. Los Angeles: Columbia, 2001. DVD.

After the personnel are listed with their role, italicize the film title, and follow it with a period.

After the title, include the city in which the film’s distributor is located, followed by a colon, the distributor’s name, a comma, and the year of release. If film was re-released in a more recent year and you are citing content new to that particular version of the film, include both dates in the citation as follows:

Doe, Jane, dir. BibMe: The Movie. 1997; Los Angeles: Columbia, 2001. DVD.

If you are citing a commentary or an individual scene, cite it like a chapter from a book. Place the commentary or film chapter name, along with a period, in quotations, after the initial personnel and before the film title.

Doe, Jane, dir. “Humble Beginnings.” BibMe: The Movie. Los Angeles: Columbia, 2001. DVD.

End with the medium of the copy of the film you viewed (e.g., VHS, DVD, Laser Disc), along with a period.

This guide may not have a Chicago style example paper, but we do have a Chicago style citation generator on BibMe.org! Head to our homepage and create your references with ease!

How to Reference a Lecture Using the Chicago Manual of Style

Readers are generally unable to access the content of a lecture viewed in person, so for that reason, it’s recommended to include information about the lecture in the text of the paper, or in the notes.

Chicago format example:

During Professor Maxwell Green’s lecture, The Fall of Rome, at New York University’s Jurow Lecture Hall on October 3, 2019….

The most basic entry for a lecture consists of the speaker’s name, presentation title, venue, city, state and date conducted.

Notes:

  1. Title of Lecture, instruction by First Name Last Name, prof. Venue, City, ST, Month, Day Year.

Example:

  1. The Fall of Rome, instruction by Maxwell Green, prof. Jurow Lecture Hall, New York, NY, October 3, 2019.

Need some more information on the style? Here’s further information.

How to Reference an Interview Using the Chicago Manual of Style

The citation format for an interview depends on how it was conducted and published. If the interview was read in a periodical, follow the guidelines for newspapers or magazines. If the interview was read on a website, refer to the structure for websites, found towards the top of this guide.

Published interview from Radio/TV program:

  1. First Name Last Name, “Title of Interview,” interview by First Name Last Name, Title of Program, Station, Month Day, Year, medium, length, web address. Last Name, First Name. “Title of Interview.” Interview by First Name Last Name. Title of Program, Station, Month Day, Year broadcasted. Medium, Length. Web address.

Unpublished interview:

Similar to lectures, unpublished interviews are untraceable, so The Chicago Manual of Style recommends to include information about the personal interview only in the text of the paper, or in the notes.

  1. First Name Last Name of person being interviewed (Role and other information to allow the reader to understand their significance) in discussion with the author, Month, Year of interview.

Example:

  1. Krishna Patel (archaeologist, Metropolitan Museum of Natural History, NYC), in discussion with the author, November, 2019.

How to reference an Encyclopedia Entry using the Chicago Manual of Style

If you’re citing a familiar reference work, such as World Book Encyclopedia, Encyclopedia Britannica, Webster’s Dictionary, Roget’s Thesaurus, or another popular reference book, it’s acceptable to display the information only in Chicago style footnotes or endnotes.

The most basic entry for an encyclopedia/dictionary consists of the encyclopedia/dictionary name, edition, “s.v.” followed by the entry title or word, and sometimes the date accessed and web address, if consulted online. The abbreviation “s.v.” is for the Latin term “sub verbo,” which basically means “under the heading.”

If the reference book was found in print:

  1. Title of Reference Book, Numbered ed. (Year published), s.v. “entry word.”

Chicago style citation example:

  1. World Book Online, 12th ed. (2011), s.v. “revolution.”

If the reference book was found online:

  1. Title of Reference Book, Version ed. (if a specific version is named), s.v. “entry word,” accessed Month Day, Year, web address.

Example:

  1. World Book Online, Student ed., s.v. “revolution,” accessed November 18, 2019, http://www.worldbookonline.com/student/topic/revolution.

Include the encyclopedia/dictionary name in italics, a comma, the encyclopedia/dictionary’s edition, and the abbreviation “ed.” Then include a comma and the abbreviation “s.v.”, and then place the entry word, along with a comma, in quotation marks.

If consulted online, add the date the reference work was accessed and the web address. End the citation with a period.

Made it this far and still confused about a Chicago in-text citation? Feeling the need to type into the Google search bar, “in-text citation Chicago?” Keep in mind that this specific version uses footnotes and endnotes, not references in the sentences of your paper.

After you’re through writing your paper, run it through the BibMe plagiarism checker. Its advanced technology provides grammar suggestions and spots instances of accidental plagiarism. Try it out now!

Helpful Tips for Your Citation

 

Our citation guides provide detailed information about all types of sources in MLA, APA, Chicago and Turabian styles.

 

If required by your instructor, you can add annotations to your citations. Just select Add Annotation while finalizing your citation. You can always edit a citation as well.

 

Remember to evaluate your sources for accuracy and credibility. Questionable sources could result in a poor grade!